If someone asked you what your tax rate was, would you have a ready answer? So the answer to the question "What's your tax rate?" is "Which tax rate are you referring to? My average tax rate or my marginal tax rate?"
We all pay tax at two different rates: the average rate and the marginal rate. The average rate is the overall rate you pay on your entire income, while the marginal rate is the rate you pay on your last few hundreds (or thousands) of dollars earned. Your marginal rate is often referred to as your tax The Average Tax Rate and the Marginal Tax Rate bracket. In nearly all cases, I'm talking about the average and marginal rates that you're paying in personal income tax, but I'll apply the average tax rate to the Social Security tax as well.
The Average Tax RateHow do you answer the question "Tell me your average tax rate"?
Let's try a simple problem. The average tax rate is calculated by dividing taxes paid by taxable income:
Average tax rate (ATR) = -------------------
Suppose a person paid $3,000 on a taxable income of $20,000. How much is the average tax rate? Do your calculations right here:
Taxes The Average Tax Rate and the Marginal Tax Rate paid $3,000
Average tax rate = ------------------ = -------------=15=15%
Taxable income $20,000
The Marginal Tax RateThe average tax rate is the overall rate you pay on your entire income, while the marginal tax rate is the rate you pay on the last few hundred dollars you earned. Suppose you made $100 in overtime and the government took $70. Would you work overtime? Chances are you wouldn't, and that supposition forms a cornerstone of supply-side economics. The supply-siders' basic belief is that our high marginal tax rates rob people of the incentive to work as hard and as long as they would with a The Average Tax Rate and the Marginal Tax Rate lower tax burden.
The marginal tax rate is calculated by dividing additional taxes paid by additional taxable income:
Additional taxes paid
Marginal tax rate (MTR) =--------------------------------------
Additional taxable income
Suppose you had to pay an additional $420 on an additional taxable income of $1,000. How much is the marginal tax rate?
Additional taxes paid $420 42
Marginal tax rate (MTR) = ---------------------------- = ----------- = ------ =4,2=42%
Additional taxable $1,000 100
20.2.Find in the text the English equivalents of the following words and word-combinations:
1. ставка податку
2. існувати, жити
3. тяжкий, обтяжливий, важкий
6. відсилати, відносити до
8. цілковитий, цілий, увесь
9. розряд оподаткування
10. ставитися до, використовувати, застосовувати
11. підраховувати, розраховувати
12. прибуток, обкладений податком
14. наріжний камінь
17. податковий тягар
20.3. Are these statements true or false? Correct the false ones.
a) The average tax The Average Tax Rate and the Marginal Tax Rate rate is calculated by dividing taxes paid by taxable income.
b) Both juridical and natural persons pay taxes at two different rates.
c) The marginal tax rate is calculated by dividing assessed taxes paid by additional taxable income.
d) The American tax system is really burdensome.
20.4. Solve the problems:
a) Suppose you pay $ 12,000 on a taxable income of $ 50,000. How much is your average tax rate?
b) Suppose your taxable income rose from $ 20,000 to $ 22,000 and the taxes you paid rose from $ 4.500, to $ 5.200. How much is your marginal tax rate?
To solve these problems: (1) write the formulae, (2) substitute numbers into the The Average Tax Rate and the Marginal Tax Rate formulae and (3) solve.
21.1 Read text 25. Define and put down the key words of each paragraph of the text.
In poetry, spring is a time when a young person's fancy turns to thoughts of love. But in economics, spring is much less romantic period. It is the season when millions of people in many countries begin to sort their previous year's income and expense records the first step in determining their personal income tax.
In calculating this tax, you are allowed to take specific types of deductions and exemptions. Some deductions that may be made (within The Average Tax Rate and the Marginal Tax Rate limits) from your income are donations to your alma mater and to various non-profit organizations.
The amount of income tax you must pay at a given income level depends on several things. These include whether you are single or married and what the particular tax rates happen to be at the time. The rates are usually revised by the government every few years.
Tax is money compulsory levied by the state or local authorities on individuals, property, or businesses.In modern economies taxes are the most important source of government revenues. Taxes can be levied and classified in The Average Tax Rate and the Marginal Tax Rate many ways. In many countries there are three principal types of taxes:
Taxes on income(personal income taxes and corporate income taxes);
Taxes on wealth(property taxes; death and gift taxes);
Taxes on activities(sales and excise taxes; social security taxes).
Because the power to tax is so weighty a matter, economists have developed several broad standards for judging the merits of a tax:
1.Equity. Tax burdens should be distributed justly.
2.Efficiency, Stability, and Growth. A tax should contribute toward improving resource allocation, economic stabilization, and growth in the total output of goods and services.
3.Enforceability. A tax should be adequate for The Average Tax Rate and the Marginal Tax Rate its purpose and acceptable to the public, or else it will be impossible to enforce.
Taxes are considered to have three functions:
a) fiscal or budgetary, to cover government expenditure, to provide the public authorities with the revenue required for meeting the cost of defence, social services, interest payment on the national debt, municipal services, etc.;
b) economic, to give effect to economic policy, to promote stable economic growth, to influence the rate of economic growth of the nation;
c) social, to increase the economic welfare of the community, to lessen inequalities in the distribution of The Average Tax Rate and the Marginal Tax Rate income and wealth.
Businesses and individuals are subject to many forms of taxes. The various forms of business are not taxed equally. The tax situation is simplest for proprietorships and partnerships; corporations or companies are treated differently.
21.2Answer the questions:
1. What is tax?
2. What are the main functions of taxation?
3. What are the principal types of taxes?
4. Are the various forms of business taxed equally?
21.3.Sum up the text in 10 – 12 sentences using the key words.
22.1.Read text 26.